THE NUMERIC CONNECTIONS OF THE GENETIC CODE©

Jean-Yves BOULAY

 

About Professor Sergei PETOUKHOV

 

 

 

 

 

Professor Sergei PETOUKHOV

Chief Scientist
Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR
Academician of Academy of Quality Problems
Department of Biomechanics, Mechanical Engineering Research Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

http://www.petoukhov.narod.ru/

 

 


Dr. Sergei Petoukhov is a chief scientist of the Department of Biomechanics in the Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). He came in this Institute in 1973 year after education in Moscow Physical-Technical Institute, Department of Physics of Living Systems. He is a doctor of physics and mathematics sciences (1988) and a candidate of biological sciences (1973). He is a laureate of the State Prize of the USSR (1986). Foreign stager of the Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Canada from the Russian Academy of Sciences (1988). He is a member of editorial board of “Journal of Biological Systems” (Chief editor, R.V. Jean). He is a Vice-President of the International society “ISIS-Symmetry” (“International Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Symmetry”) (1989–till 2002) and Chairman of Advisory board of the International Symmetry Association and an Honorary Chairman of the International Society of Symmetry in Bioinformatics from 2003). He served as a quest editor of a special issue “Symmetries in genetic information” of the journal “Symmetry: Culture and Science”. He is a main scientist in the collaboration between Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2002-2004 years in a theme “Non-linear models and symmetrological analysis in biomechanics and in theory of self-organizing systems”. He is a Vice-president of the Russian “National Academy of Intellectual and Social technologies” and Academician of Academy of Quality Problems, Russia (from 2000).

Prof. Petoukhov is a specialist in theoretical and mathematical biology, biomechanics, theories of symmetry and self-organization, crystallography, physiology. His main interest during last years is symmetry in genetic coding system. He is an author of 120 scientific works, including four books: (1) S. V. Petoukhov, “Biomechanics, Bionics and Symmetry”, 1981, 239 pages. (2) S. V. Petoukhov, “Geometries of Living Nature and Algorithms of Self-Organization”, 1988, 48 pages. (3) S. V. Petoukhov, “Biosolitons. The Bases of Soliton Biology”, 1999, 288 pages. (4) S. V. Petoukhov, “The Biperiodic Table of Genetic Code and Number of Protons”, 2001, 258 pages.

 

Some example of searches of Professor Sergei Petoukhov:

 

A fragment of the article: S.V.Petoukhov Genetic Code and the Ancient Chinese “Book Of Changes”” , “Symmetry: Culture and Science”, 1999, vol.10, № 3-4, p. 211

Instead of usual symbols of atoms (in a form of circles with the letters inside) new symbolism will represent each non-hydrogen atom by number of protons of its nucleus. For example, atom of nitrogen will be represented by number 7. If one or several atoms of hydrogen are joined to some non-hydrogen atom, we shall add protons of hydrogen to number of protons of non-hydrogen atom always. Such group of the non-hydrogen atom with its adjoined hydrogen atoms (i.e., “protonated” non-hydrogen atom) will be denote by sum of protons of their nucleuses. For example, amino group NH2 will be denoted by number 9 which is sum of 7 protons of nitrogen atom and 2 protons of two hydrogen atoms. In such schemes the atoms of hydrogen are not represented independently at all, and their presence at a molecule simply increases general number of protons of the atoms, connected to them directly.

 

 

 

Petoukhov, S. V., 2001. The Bi-periodic Table of Genetic Code and Number of Protons, Foreword of K. V. Frolov, Moscow, 258 (in Russian).

 

SUMMARY OF THE BOOK

 

             The biological evolution can be treated as process of deployment and duplicating of the certain forms of ordering. Many aspects of biological self-organizing at all levels - from macromolecules up to organisms - are connected to their existence. The phenomenon of left-right dissymmetry in living substance is one of known examples of realization of such special forms of ordering. The knowledge of these forms in biological systems is represented by a one of major tasks in biology. In particular, the experience of molecular genetics testifies what through disclosing of special kinds of ordering, such as, say, a complementary of pairs of the nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA or the structure of a double spiral of DNA, is possible to ensure significant progress in a science about living nature.

             The present book is devoted to revealing of the important forms of ordering in the system of genetic coding. There are a natural ordering in the set of 64 genetic triplets and peculiarities of nitrogenous bases at the center of attention. The reason of this attention is that the set of 64 codons and the set of nitrogenous bases of the code are universal for living organisms. They have a basic value in a role of biological invariants of systems of the hereditary information.

Having advanced in understanding of structurally functional features of base systems of genetic coding, mankind extracts simultaneously an opportunity to advance in different areas of biology, which are built in the consent with these base systems. The structured set of triplets, allowing construction the Biperiodic table of genetic code, seems to be a generator of order on more high levels of genetic system in many respects.

The natural technology of genetic coding is major and most effective natural technology ensuring life on our planet. And acquirement of this technology, occurring on our eyes, is major moment in evolution of mankind.

To the basic results of researches, which are described in this book, the author carries the following.

1. Revelation of natural order and profound structurization in the system of 64 triplets.

2. Construction of the Biperiodic table of triplets and its three-dimensional model   

    analogue.

3. Results of the system analysis of this Table for cases of different numerical

    attributes of nitrogenous bases.

4. Revelation of the important role of a sign of amino mutation of nitrogenous bases

    of a code for natural ordering of set of codons.

5. Results of the analysis of an "ideal" vertebrate mitochondrial code from a position

    of the Biperiodic table for different types of amino acids and punctuation signs.

    Introduction of new notions ("white" and "black" triplets and amino acids, octal and

    not octal amino acids, etc.), which are necessary for fixing and research of

    profound structurization of genetic system. 

6. Development of the concept of poly-languages of the DNA and RNA sequences (or

     poly-alphabet of system of nitrogenous bases of a code).

7. Revealing new structural connections between subsystems of different levels in  

    uniform system of genetic coding.

8. Results of the primary comparative analysis of a sequence of triplets in the genes of

    the elementary protein - insulin - from a position of the Biperiodic table of a code.

9. Results of the primary comparative analysis of various evolutionary variants of a  

    genetic code from a position of the Biperiodic table of a code. The prediction of 

    peculiarities of those natural variants of a code, that can be revealed in the future.

10. Revelation of a phenomenology of proton-numerical modules.

11. Revelation of the new facts of manifestation of symmetries and anti-symmetries in   

      a phenomenology of living systems.

12. An establishment of analogies between the Biperiodic table of genetic code and  

      systems of Ancient Chinese "The Book of changes ".

The direction of researches, described in the book, progresses quickly. To the moment of its publication it will have many new results.

 

 

 

 

The Rules of Degeneracy and Segregations in Genetic Codes. The Chronocyclic Conception and Parallelisms with Mendel’s Laws

The paper is devoted to principles of structuring of genetic coding systems. The first part describes phenomenological rules of numbers of degeneracy of those 17 genetic codes, which modern biology knows. They demonstrate the existence of numeric evolutionary invariant in a form of two opposite (Yin and Yang) categories of numbers of degeneracy, which divide a set of 20 amino acids into appropriate subsets of 8 and of 12 amino acids. These rules were discovered by the author in a course of investigation of symmetries in genetic codes from the chronobiological viewpoint. The results propose a new way to explore heuristic parallels between genetic code and chronobiology, including chronocyclic conceptions of Ancient Oriental medicine.

The second part describes formal parallelisms in many cases between genetic code structures  and the Mendel’s laws. New ideas about structuring of genetic codes and genetic sequences are put forward on basis of these materials. Simultaneously the paper presents special mathematical matrices, which are connected with the binary sub-alphabets of genetic code, for analysis of structural properties of genetic coding system at different levels. In particular, these matrices permit to discover a new formal connection of genetic codes with the golden section, which can be determined now in a new way by means of such matrices with numeric parameters of genetic elements.

 

 

 

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